INFORMATION

 

Gemstones:

Types:

 

 

Hardness Scale:

MOH’S Hardness Scale


The MOH’S scale was created by trying to scratch one mineral with another, and then recording which mineral left a scratch. For example, Corundum (Saphire and Ruby) was used to scratch Apatite. Corundum left a scratch on the surface of Apatite and so this mineral should sit higher on the scale.

The most important number on this scale is 7. Why?, 7 is the hardness of Quartz which is the hardest mineral that is commonly air born. It is important to have jewellery with gemstones in it that has a MOH’s hardness number of 7 or higher because of the amount of dust and impurities in the air. If the dust contains minute particles of Quartz, than any mineral that is below quartz on the MOH'S scale will be scratched by dust on a cleaning cloth.

Gemstone
Specific Gravity
Hardness
Refraction Index
Amethyst
2.65
7.0
1.532 - 1.554
Apatite
3.16-3.23
5.0
1.628-1.649
Aquamarine
2.63 - 2.91
7.5 - 8.0
1.567-1.590
Chrysoberyl
3.68 - 3.78
8.5
1.746 - 1.755
Chrysoprase
2.65
7.0
1.530 - 1.550
Citrine
2.65
7.0
1.532 - 1.554
Diamond
3.51
10
2.417
Emerald
2.63 - 2.91
7.5 - 8.0
1.560 - 1.605
Garnet
3.50 - 4.30
6.5 - 7.5
1.730 - 1.760
Jade
2.90 - 3.10
6.0
1.640 - 1.667
Kunzite
3.35
65-70
1.66-1.681
Lapis Lazuli
2.70 - 2.90
5.0 - 5.5
1.500 - 1.550
Opal
1.98 - 2.25
5.5 - 6.5
1.440 - 1.460
Peridot
3.22 - 3.45
7.0
1.635 - 1.690
Rose Quartz
2.65
7.0
1.540 - 1.550
Ruby
3.96 - 4.05
9.0
1.757 - 1.779
Sapphire
3.96 - 4.05
9.0
1.757 - 1.779
Smoky Quartz
2.65
7.0
1.540 - 1.550
Spinel
3.58 - 4.06
8.0
1.712 - 1.717
Tanzanite  
6.5-7.0
1.691-1.7
Topaz
3.50 - 3.60
8.0
1.607 - 1.627
Tourmaline
3.03 - 3.25
7.0 - 7.5
1.603 - 1.655
Turquoise
2.60 - 2.80
5.0 - 6.0
1.610 - 1.650
Zircon
4.60 - 4.70
7.5
1.777 - 1.987

 

CLARITY DESCRIPTION:


• IF = Loupe Clean - Internally flawless; free of inclusions
• VVS = Almost Loupe Clean - Very, very slight inclusions; inclusions barely seen under 10x magnification
• VS = Eye Clean - Very slight inclusions; inclusions can be seen under 10x magnification
• SI = Slightly included - Small inclusions can be seen with the naked eye
• I = Included - Inclusions can be seen with the naked eye
• Transparent = A gemstone having the property of transmitting light without serious diffusion / may have rutile or other inclusions
• Translucent = Allowing light to pass through, but not transparent
• Opaque = Does not allow light to pass through

 

GEM SHAPES & CUTS:

 

 

BIRTHSTONES:

 

 

 

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